Influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric characteristics on plasma insulin after eccentric exercise.
To increase understanding of the interaction between macronutrients and insulin resistance (IR), this study sought to determine the influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric differences on IR and inflammation responses to eccentric resistance exercise. Men and women (n = 12, 19-36 years old) participated in a crossover study and completed 6 sets of 10 unilateral maximal eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors and extensors followed by controlled diet conditions for the first 8 hours postexercise of carbohydrate/fat/protein proportions of either 75%/15%/10% (CHO) or 6%/70%/24% (FAT/PRO). Fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) variables, and interleukin (IL)-1β were measured preexercise and 23 hours postexercise (additional measures of glucose and insulin 1 hour after meals consumed 0.5, 3, and 7 hours postexercise). Insulin increased more (P < .01) in the CHO compared with the FAT/PRO condition at 1.5, 4, and 8 hours postexercise. Insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β-cell function increased 23 hours postexercise in both conditions, whereas IL-1β increased 23 hours postexercise only in the CHO condition. Magnitude of change (Δ) for these variables associated positively with body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in the CHO and inversely in the FAT/PRO condition; that is, r = 0.53 (P = .10) and r = -0.82 (P < .01) for BMI vs Δ insulin in CHO and FAT/PRO conditions, respectively. The Δ IL-1β associated with BMI (r = 0.62, P < .05) and WHR (r = 0.84, P < .01) in the CHO condition. The CHO enhanced IR and inflammation as BMI and WHR increased, whereas fat and protein enhanced IR as BMI and WHR decreased. Thus, BMI and WHR may need to be taken into account in the development of nutritional strategies to prevent IR.