Examines the logic of scientific inference in general and important issues in inference in archaeology specifically. It focuses on the fundamental problem of arguing from evidence based on the things people left behind to the lives those people led, the fundamental problem in archaeology. We examine general topics to start, including analytic bias, constructing and borrowing theory, and the development of archaeological interpretation over time, using recent and older literature. We then turn to analysis of published case studies and finish with cases from specific research topics the students are working on. Previously offered as a special topics course.