An Analysis of Written Conductive Energy Device Policies Journal Article uri icon



  • Although scholars have recognized the utility of conductive energy devices as less-than-lethal force tools, there have been concerns over the misuse of the device and the adverse health effects associated with its use in the field. In an attempt to improve policy, scholars and policing organizations, such as the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), have developed “model” written CED policies as guidelines. It is expected that adherence to these policies can improve the overall effectiveness of the device as well as reduce many negative outcomes. This study reviews and compares the written CED policies of 124 municipal policing agencies to the model policies set forth by PERF. The findings indicate that municipal police agencies have done a rather poor job meeting these recommendations. Implications and recommendations for making broad improvements to CED policies are discussed.

publication date

  • December 1, 2012

has restriction

  • closed

Date in CU Experts

  • September 12, 2019 10:55 AM

Full Author List

  • Thomas KJ; Collins PA; Lovrich NP

author count

  • 3

Other Profiles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0887-4034

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-3586

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 399

end page

  • 426


  • 23


  • 4