- Hearing loss is a highly prevalent chronic condition. In addition to age, sex, noise exposure, and genetic predisposition, cardiovascular disease and its antecedents may precipitate hearing loss. Of emerging interest is the connection between diabetes and auditory dysfunction. Cross-sectional studies consistently suggest that prevalence of hearing loss is higher in persons with diabetes compared with those without diabetes, especially among younger persons. Furthermore, longitudinal studies have demonstrated higher incidence of hearing loss in persons with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. These findings seem to hold for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, although considerably more population-based evidence is available for type 2 diabetes. Data on gestational diabetes and hearing outcomes are limited, as are data relating diabetes to otologic sequelae such as fungal infection. Here, we examine evidence from epidemiologic studies of diabetes and hearing loss and consider clinical and laboratory data where population-based data are lacking.