Estimation of liquid water path below the melting layer in stratiform precipitation systems using radar measurements during MC3E Journal Article uri icon



  • Abstract. In this study, the liquid water path (LWP) below the melting layer in; stratiform precipitation systems is retrieved, which is a combination of; rain liquid water path (RLWP) and cloud liquid water path (CLWP). The; retrieval algorithm uses measurements from the vertically pointing radars; (VPRs) at 35 and 3 GHz operated by the US Department of Energy; Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric; Administration (NOAA) during the field campaign Midlatitude Continental; Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The measured radar reflectivity and; mean Doppler velocity from both VPRs and spectrum width from the 35 GHz; radar are utilized. With the aid of the cloud base detected by a ceilometer,; the LWP in the liquid layer is retrieved under two different situations: (I) no cloud exists below the melting base, and (II) cloud exists below the; melting base. In (I), LWP is primarily contributed from raindrops only,; i.e., RLWP, which is estimated by analyzing the Doppler velocity differences; between two VPRs. In (II), cloud particles and raindrops coexist below the; melting base. The CLWP is estimated using a modified attenuation-based; algorithm. Two stratiform precipitation cases (20 and 11 May 2011); during MC3E are illustrated for two situations, respectively. With a total; of 13 h of samples during MC3E, statistical results show that the; occurrence of cloud particles below the melting base is low (9 %);; however, the mean CLWP value can be up to 0.56 kg m−2, which is much; larger than the RLWP (0.10 kg m−2). When only raindrops exist below the; melting base, the average RLWP value is larger (0.32 kg m−2) than the with-cloud situation. The overall mean LWP below the melting base is 0.34 kg m−2 for stratiform systems during MC3E.;

publication date

  • July 11, 2019

Full Author List

  • Tian J; Dong X; Xi B; Williams CR; Wu P

Other Profiles

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 3743

end page

  • 3759


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