Beyond the challenge hypothesis: The emergence of the dual-hormone hypothesis and recommendations for future research. Journal Article uri icon



  • The challenge hypothesis makes specific predictions about the association between testosterone and status-seeking behaviors, but the findings linking testosterone to these behaviors are often inconsistent. The dual-hormone hypothesis was developed to help explain these inconsistencies. Specifically, according to this hypothesis, testosterone's association with status-seeking behavior depends on levels of cortisol. Here, we (1) describe the dual-hormone hypothesis in relation to the challenge hypothesis; (2) review recent studies that tested the dual-hormone hypothesis as well as meta-scientific evidence of heterogeneous dual-hormone findings across studies; (3) discuss potential explanations for this heterogeneity, including methodological considerations, contextual factors, and individual differences; and (4) provide recommendations for new work aimed at testing and extending the dual-hormone hypothesis.

publication date

  • July 1, 2020

has subject area

has restriction

  • green

Date in CU Experts

  • October 21, 2020 10:51 AM

Full Author List

  • Knight EL; Sarkar A; Prasad S; Mehta PH

author count

  • 4

Other Profiles

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1095-6867

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 104657


  • 123