Human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein 120 alters sleep and induces cytokine mRNA expression in rats [published errata appear in Am J Physiol 1996 Aug;271(2 Pt 2):section R following table of contents and 1996 Dec;271(6 Pt 3):section R following table of contents] Journal Article uri icon



  • Sleep is altered during the course of viral infection, including that in which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent. Alterations in the sleep of HIV-infected individuals occur early in the course of infection, prior to the onset of AIDS. The mechanisms for such alterations in sleep are not known. The HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) induces the synthesis and secretion of cytokines that enhance [e.g., interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor] and suppress (e.g., IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist) sleep. We used a well-defined rat model to test the hypothesis that the HIV gp120 alters sleep. Recombinant HIV-1IIIB gp120 was injected intracerebroventricularly (20- 500 ng) into rats prior to dark onset. Sleep-wake behavior was not altered after the 20-ng dose, whereas both non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) were initially enhanced and subsequently suppressed after the 100-ng dose. NREMS was enhanced for 8 h after the 500-ng dose; REMS was not affected by this dose. Brain temperature was not altered by any of the gp120 doses used in this study. In addition, mRNA expression for IL-1 beta and IL-10 was induced in the hypothalamus by gp120; this brain region is crucial for the regulation of sleep. These new data support the hypothesis that altered cytokine concentrations within the central nervous system play a pivotal role in the complex alterations in sleep observed during HIV infection.

publication date

  • May 1, 1996

has restriction

  • closed

Date in CU Experts

  • February 1, 2022 9:58 AM

Full Author List

  • Opp MR; Rady PL; Hughes TK; Cadet P; Tyring SK; Smith EM

author count

  • 6

Other Profiles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0363-6119

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1522-1490

Additional Document Info

start page

  • R963

end page

  • R970


  • 270


  • 5