Small Penetrator Instrument Concept for the Advancement of Lunar Surface Science Journal Article uri icon



  • Abstract; Fundamental scientific objectives concerning the surface and subsurface material and dynamics of the Moon are the drivers for the use and advancement of penetrators, which emplace a suite of scientific instruments by impact into a planetary surface, typically at velocities of dozens to hundreds of meters per second. Small lunar penetrators are poised to become a valuable new tool for lunar science and exploration during the next decade. These low-cost ballistic probes can be deployed in large numbers from orbit, or from descending robotic or crewed vehicles, in order to explore and characterize the diversity of extreme lunar shallow subsurface environments. In this paper, we describe the general overview of penetrator objectives, potential instrumentation, and how these would benefit the advancement of lunar science at various extreme environments.

publication date

  • February 1, 2021

has restriction

  • gold

Date in CU Experts

  • February 1, 2022 9:42 AM

Full Author List

  • Ahrens CJ; Paige DA; Eubanks TM; Blase WP; Mesick KE; Zimmerman W; Petro N; Hayne PO; Price S

author count

  • 9

Other Profiles

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2632-3338

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 38

end page

  • 38


  • 2


  • 1