Control Co-Design of Wind Turbines Journal Article uri icon



  • Wind energy is recognized worldwide as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, and it is among the fastest-growing sources of electrical energy. To further decrease the cost of wind energy, wind turbines are being designed at ever-larger scales. To expand the deployment of wind energy, wind turbines are also being designed on floating platforms for placement in deep-water locations offshore. Both larger-scale and floating wind turbines pose challenges because of their greater structural loads and deflections. Complex, large-scale systems such as modern wind turbines increasingly require a control co-design approach, whereby the system design and control design are performed in a more integrated fashion. This article reviews recent developments in control co-design of wind turbines. We provide an overview of wind turbine design objectives and constraints, issues in the design of key wind turbine components, modeling of the wind turbine and environment, and controller coupling issues. Wind turbine control functions and the integration of control design in co-design are detailed with a focus on co-design compatible control approaches. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Volume 7 is May 2024. Please see for revised estimates.

publication date

  • May 3, 2024

has restriction

  • closed

Date in CU Experts

  • January 28, 2024 11:01 AM

Full Author List

  • Pao LY; Pusch M; Zalkind DS

author count

  • 3

Other Profiles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2573-5144

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2573-5144

Additional Document Info


  • 7


  • 1