By controlling the morphology of organic and inorganic semiconductors on a molecular scale, nanoscale
p–njunctions can be generated in a bulk composite. Such a composite is typically called a bulk heterojunction composite, which can be considered as one virtual semiconductor combining the electrical and optical properties of the individual components. Solar cells are one attractive application for bulk heterojunction composites. Conjugated polymers or oligomers are the favorite p-type semiconducting class for these composites, while for the n-type semiconductor, inorganic nanoparticles as well as organic molecules have been investigated. Due to the solubility of the individual components, printing techniques are used to fabricate them.