We are running climate models for Earth, Mars and exoplanets. We are also simulating the climate of the Earth at the time of the origin of life. We are particularly interested in the role of clouds and aerosols in climate. Various students are investigating geo-engineering using sulfates to counter the greenhouse effect, how to solve the faint young sun problem on early Earth, how river valleys formed on ancient Mars, how sea salt is lifted from the oceans and whether people may modify clouds over the oceans given the large natural burden of sea salt, how the upper atmosphere is polluted by sulfur emissions and volcanic eruptions, how polar stratospheric clouds form and impact ozone, how smoke from fires may influence climate, and how the use of nuclear weapons may threaten global civilization.
atmospheres and climates of the Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, exoplanets and the early Earth