Lowering rules in Chadic Journal Article uri icon



  • In Frajzyngier (1981) I attempted to reconstruct vowel-raising and vowellowering rules in Chadic. Vowel-raising rules were found in three branches of Chadic, and they operated under similar conditions, viz., vowels of the stem were raised when there was a high vowel added in the suffix. Vowel-lowering rules were found in two branches of Chadic, but I could not reconstruct them as being part of Proto-Chadic because they were essentially different rules: in the East branch the vowels of the stem were lowered when a low vowel suffix was added. In the West branch the last vowel of the word was lowered when a heavy syllable preceded it. In that paper I stated that unless vowel-lowering rules were found in some other branches of Chadic, these rules could not be reconstructed as existing in Proto-Chadic. It now appears that such rules do; exist in other branches. In Mulwi, or Munjuk, a Biu-Mandara language, there exists a vowel-lowering rule that operates under similar conditions as vowel-lowering rules in the East Branch l; anguages, Mubi and Migama.

publication date

  • June 1, 1986

Date in CU Experts

  • February 23, 2015 12:59 PM

Full Author List

  • Frajzyngier Z

author count

  • 1

Other Profiles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0041-977X

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1474-0699

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 384

end page

  • 385


  • 49


  • 2