Endoplasmic reticulum structure and interconnections with other organelles.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, continuous membrane-bound organelle comprised of functionally and structurally distinct domains including the nuclear envelope, peripheral tubular ER, peripheral cisternae, and numerous membrane contact sites at the plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi, endosomes, and peroxisomes. These domains are required for multiple cellular processes, including synthesis of proteins and lipids, calcium level regulation, and exchange of macromolecules with various organelles at ER-membrane contact sites. The ER maintains its unique overall structure regardless of dynamics or transfer at ER-organelle contacts. In this review, we describe the numerous factors that contribute to the structure of the ER.