- Surveys of nucleotide sequence polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans were performed at 2 interacting loci crucial for gametogenesis: bag-of-marbles (bam) and benign gonial cell neoplasm (bgcn). At the polymorphism level, both loci appear to be evolving under the expectations of the neutral theory. However, ratios of polymorphism and divergence for synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations depart significantly from neutral expectations for both loci consistent with a previous observation of positive selection at bam. The deviations suggest either an excess of synonymous polymorphisms or an excess of nonsynonymous fixations at both loci. Synonymous evolution appears to conform to neutrality at bam. At bgcn, there is evidence of positive selection affecting preferred synonymous mutations along the D. simulans lineage. However, there is also a significantly higher rate of nonsynonymous fixations at bgcn within D. simulans. Thus, the deviation from neutrality detected by the McDonald-Kreitman test at these 2 loci is likely due to the selective acceleration of nonsynonymous fixations. Differences in the pattern of amino acid fixations between these 2 interacting proteins suggest that the detected positive selection is not due to a simple model of coevolution.