The draft genome of Ruellia speciosa (Beautiful Wild Petunia: Acanthaceae).
The genus Ruellia (Wild Petunias; Acanthaceae) is characterized by an enormous diversity of floral shapes and colours manifested among closely related species. Using Illumina platform, we reconstructed the draft genome of Ruellia speciosa, with a scaffold size of 1,021 Mb (or ∼1.02 Gb) and an N50 size of 17,908 bp, spanning ∼93% of the estimated genome (∼1.1 Gb). The draft assembly predicted 40,124 gene models and phylogenetic analyses of four key enzymes involved in anthocyanin colour production [flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR)] found that most angiosperms here sampled harboured at least one copy of F3H, F3'H, and DFR. In contrast, fewer than one-half (but including R. speciosa) harboured a copy of F3'5'H, supporting observations that blue flowers and/or fruits, which this enzyme is required for, are less common among flowering plants. Ka/Ks analyses of duplicated copies of F3'H and DFR in R. speciosa suggested purifying selection in the former but detected evidence of positive selection in the latter. The genome sequence and annotation of R. speciosa represents only one of only four families sequenced in the large and important Asterid clade of flowering plants and, as such, will facilitate extensive future research on this diverse group, particularly with respect to floral evolution.