- Nature is in constant flux, so animals must account for changes in their environment when making decisions. How animals learn the timescale of such changes and adapt their decision strategies accordingly is not well understood. Recent psychophysical experiments have shown humans and other animals can achieve near-optimal performance at two alternative forced choice (2AFC) tasks in dynamically changing environments. Characterization of performance requires the derivation and analysis of computational models of optimal decision-making policies on such tasks. We review recent theoretical work in this area, and discuss how models compare with subjects' behavior in tasks where the correct choice or evidence quality changes in dynamic, but predictable, ways.