- Detailed mapping of genetic and environmental influences on the functional connectome is a crucial step toward developing intermediate phenotypes between genes and clinical diagnoses or cognitive abilities. We analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from two adult twin samples (Nos = 446 and 371) to quantify genetic and environmental influence on all pairwise functional connections between 264 brain regions (~35 000 functional connections). Nonshared environmental influence was high across the whole connectome. Approximately 14-22% of connections had nominally significant genetic influence in each sample, 4.6% were significant in both samples, and 1-2% had heritability estimates greater than 30%. Evidence of shared environmental influence was weak. Genetic influences on connections were distinct from genetic influences on a global summary measure of the connectome, network-based estimates of connectivity, and movement during the resting-state scan, as revealed by a novel connectome-wide bivariate genetic modeling procedure. The brain's genetic organization is diverse and not as one would expect based solely on structure evident in nongenetically informative data or lower resolution data. As follow-up, we make novel classifications of functional connections and examine highly localized connections with particularly strong genetic influence. This high-resolution genetic taxonomy of brain connectivity will be useful in understanding genetic influences on brain disorders.