Structure-Function-Environment Relationship of the Isomers Zeaxanthin and Lutein Journal Article uri icon



  • A synthesis is provided of the roles of the carotenoids zeaxanthin and/or lutein in opposing (i) photodamage in plants, (ii) photodamage to the human eye as well as cognitive dysfunction and a host of human diseases and disorders, and (iii) damage to extremophile microorganisms in the most inhospitable environments on earth. Selected examples are used to examine microenvironments and basic biological structures with which these xanthophylls associate as well as the effect of the organisms’ external environment. An overview is presented of the multiple principal mechanisms through which these xanthophylls can directly or indirectly impact organisms’ internal redox (oxidant/antioxidant) balance that provides input into the orchestration of growth, development, and defense in prokaryotic microorganisms, plants, and humans. Gaps in the research are identified, specifically with respect to the need for further in vivo assessment of the mechanisms.

publication date

  • April 18, 2022

has restriction

  • gold

Date in CU Experts

  • April 26, 2022 10:03 AM

Full Author List

  • Demmig-Adams B; Polutchko SK; Adams WW

author count

  • 3

Other Profiles

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2673-7256

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 308

end page

  • 325


  • 2


  • 2