Development of a nutritious, sustainable food source is essential to address worldwide deficiencies in human micronutrients. Aquatic floating plants (e.g., species in the family Lemnaceae, duckweeds) are uniquely suited for area-efficient productivity with exceptionally high rates of growth and nutritional quality. Here, we provide an overview of the role of dietary micronutrients (with a focus on carotenoids) in human health and the promise of Lemnaceae as sustainable crops. We examine the effect of growth light environment on plant biomass production and levels of the carotenoids zeaxanthin, lutein, and pro-vitamin A (β-carotene), as well as the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol), and protein. Data on each of these nutrients are reported on a plant dry biomass basis (as relevant for nutrition) as well as relative to the required input of light energy (as relevant to resource-use efficiency).