Middle-out methods for spatiotemporal tissue engineering of organoids. Journal Article uri icon



  • Organoids recapitulate many aspects of the complex three-dimensional (3D) organization found within native tissues and even display tissue and organ-level functionality. Traditional approaches to organoid culture have largely employed a top-down tissue engineering strategy, whereby cells are encapsulated in a 3D matrix, such as Matrigel, alongside well-defined biochemical cues that direct morphogenesis. However, the lack of spatiotemporal control over niche properties renders cellular processes largely stochastic. Therefore, bottom-up tissue engineering approaches have evolved to address some of these limitations and focus on strategies to assemble tissue building blocks with defined multi-scale spatial organization. However, bottom-up design reduces the capacity for self-organization that underpins organoid morphogenesis. Here, we introduce an emerging framework, which we term middle-out strategies, that relies on existing design principles and combines top-down design of defined synthetic matrices that support proliferation and self-organization with bottom-up modular engineered intervention to limit the degrees of freedom in the dynamic process of organoid morphogenesis. We posit that this strategy will provide key advances to guide the growth of organoids with precise geometries, structures and function, thereby facilitating an unprecedented level of biomimicry to accelerate the utility of organoids to more translationally relevant applications.

publication date

  • January 1, 2023

has restriction

  • bronze

Date in CU Experts

  • March 14, 2023 11:11 AM

Full Author List

  • Blatchley MR; Anseth KS

author count

  • 2

Other Profiles

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2731-6092

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 329

end page

  • 345


  • 1


  • 5