Habituation and tolerance in coyotes (Canis latrans), a flexible urban predator Journal Article uri icon



  • AbstractThe behavioral mechanisms by which urban wildlife adapt to urban landscapes and disturbances within these environments are poorly understood. Such understanding can be important for wildlife managers, especially if the species is of concern to human and pet safety, such as the coyote (Canis latrans). Here, we evaluate coyote tolerance to the presence of humans, pets, and anthropogenic landscapes, to better understand how coyotes are conditioned to live in urbanizing landscapes. Using continuous focal follow and instantaneous scan sampling, we collected data on metrics of anthropogenic development and coyote flight response. We used cumulative link mixed models to determine that intensity of behavioral response to observation was impacted by habitat, human visitation to sites, and coyote group composition. These data may be useful to managers for profiling potentially problematic individual animals and identifying strategies for human–coyote coexistence.

publication date

  • December 1, 2023

has restriction

  • hybrid

Date in CU Experts

  • February 19, 2024 7:05 AM

Full Author List

  • Golden Beam ER; Berger J; Breck SW; Schell CJ; Lambert JE

author count

  • 5

Other Profiles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2832-5869

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2832-5869

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 153

end page

  • 162


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