Nature of rate-limiting steps in a compartmentalized enzyme system. Quantitation of dopamine transport and hydroxylation rates in resealed chromaffin granule ghosts.
Using isolated chromaffin granule ghosts from bovine adrenal medullae, we have studied the kinetics of dopamine beta-monooxygenase (D beta M) activity as it islinked to dopamine transport. Measurements of the initial rates of transport andof transport-linked norepinephrine formation suggested that enzyme activity may be partially rate-limiting in the coupled carrier/enzyme system. This was confirmed by (i) measurements of initial rates of norepinephrine formation usingdeuterated substrate, which gave isotope effects greater than 2.0, and (ii) kinetic measurements using ghosts pulsed with varying concentrations of labeled dopamine, which indicated substantial substrate accumulation in the vesicle interior as a function of time. Initial rates of product formation, when combined with approximations of internal substrate concentrations, allowed estimates of Kcat and Km for intravesicular D beta M. Activation by external reductant was apparent in both initial rate parameters and the measurements of transients. Under conditions of optimal D beta M activity, the enzyme rate parameters (kcat = 0.31 nmol/s.mg and Km = 2 mM) indicated partial rate limitation compared to dopamine transport (kcat = 0.38 nmol/s.mg and Km = 32 microM). Compartmental analysis of the time curves, performed using numerical nonlinear least squares methods, gave least squares estimates of rate constants for a simple carrier mechanism and kcat values for D beta M which were consistent with estimates frominitial rates.