Life stress and dysphoria: the role of self-esteem and hopelessness.
This study evaluated the hypotheses that the relation between life stress (life events and daily hassles) and longitudinal change in dysphoria would be (a) moderated by self-esteem and (b) mediated by longitudinal change in hopelessness. Eighty undergraduates were first assessed on self-esteem, hopelessness, and dysphoria and then reassessed 3 months later on life events, daily hassles, hopelessness, and dysphoria. Residual change in dysphoria was significantly associated with self-esteem, life stress, and a Self-Esteem X Life Stress interaction. However, inconsonant with predictions, the moderating impact of self-esteem was greatest under conditions of low (vs. high) life stress. Moreover, residual change in hopelessness mediated the relations between residual change in dysphoria and both self-esteem and life stress.