Recent experiments have shown that mRNAs can move between polysomes and P-bodies, which are aggregates of nontranslating mRNAs associated with translational repressors and the mRNA decapping machinery. The transitions between polysomes and P-bodies and how the poly(A) tail and the associated poly(A) binding protein 1 (Pab1p) may affect this process are unknown. Herein, we provide evidence that poly(A)+ mRNAs can enter P-bodies in yeast. First, we show that both poly(A)− and poly(A)+ mRNA become translationally repressed during glucose deprivation, where mRNAs accumulate in P-bodies. In addition, both poly(A)+ transcripts and/or Pab1p can be detected in P-bodies during glucose deprivation and in stationary phase. Cells lacking Pab1p have enlarged P-bodies, suggesting that Pab1p plays a direct or indirect role in shifting the equilibrium of mRNAs away from P-bodies and into translation, perhaps by aiding in the assembly of a type of mRNP within P-bodies that is poised to reenter translation. Consistent with this latter possibility, we observed the translation initiation factors (eIF)4E and eIF4G in P-bodies at a low level during glucose deprivation and at high levels in stationary phase. Moreover, Pab1p exited P-bodies much faster than Dcp2p when stationary phase cells were given fresh nutrients. Together, these results suggest that polyadenylated mRNAs can enter P-bodies, and an mRNP complex including poly(A)+ mRNA, Pab1p, eIF4E, and eIF4G2 may represent a transition state during the process of mRNAs exchanging between P-bodies and translation.