We examine seismic risk from the commercial real estate investor's viewpoint. We present a methodology to estimate the uncertain net asset value ( NAV) of an investment opportunity considering market risk and seismic risk. For seismic risk, we employ a performance-based earthquake engineering methodology called assembly-based vulnerability (ABV). For market risk, we use evidence of volatility of return on investment in the United States. We find that uncertainty in NAV can be significant compared with investors’ risk tolerance, making it appropriate to adopt a decision-analysis approach to the investment decision, in which one optimizes certainty equivalent, CE, as opposed to NAV. Uncertainty in market value appears greatly to exceed uncertainty in earthquake repair costs. Consequently, CE is sensitive to the mean value of earthquake repair costs but not to its variance. Thus, to a real estate investor, seismic risk matters only in the mean, at least for the demonstration buildings examined here.