- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved small non-coding RNAs that typically regulate gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. Developmental functions of miRNAs have been extensively studied, but additional roles in various cellular processes remain to be understood. The investigation of the biological importance of individual miRNA-target interactions and the miRNA-target interaction network as a whole has been an exciting and challenging field of study. Here we briefly discuss the contributions our lab has made to our understanding of the physiological impact of this miRNA-network in C. elegans, in the context of recent studies in this advancing field. These studies have advanced our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in ensuring a robust cellular response to different physiological conditions. We briefly outline the genetic, biochemical, and computational strategies utilized to understand miRNA functions and discuss our recent study of the miRNA-interaction network in neurons and potential directions for future studies.