- Dr. Carlos' research is focused on aspects of the development of financial markets in early modern England. She focuses in particular on early stock market development and on the ways in which participants used that market. A particular focus of this research is on the depth and breadth of market activity especially for those considered outsiders, such as women and jews. She is now beginning an in depth examination of how bankruptcy laws in early modern England affected creditors and debtors and thus the level of investment and growth in the economy. Dr. Carlos also works on interactions between Europeans and native peoples in Canada during the first century of a commercial trade. Her work examines native's as consumers of European products, the role of depletion and the impact of property rights on how native peoples pursued the trade. She is beginning an exploration of institutional and cultural arrangements used by native peoples to mitigate or attenuate the risk of starvation.