- Ajume Wingo's area of specialty and training is social and political philosophy. Central to his research program are problems related to the establishment and support of citizen-based government: What civic attitudes are needed to sustain citizen-based institutions and how to foster these attitudes? How to maintain existing institutions and freedom-enhancing attitudes in existing liberal democracies? Wingo considers both theoretical and practical aspects of these questions as they arise in two distinct contexts: (1) existing liberal democracies such as the United States, Western Europe and their outposts such as Japan and (2) the non-liberal and democratizing states in the developing world especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. Wingo focuses specifically on electoral democracy.