Widespread co-occurrence of virulent pathogens within California amphibian communities. Journal Article uri icon



  • The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, ranaviruses, and trematodes (Ribeiroia ondatrae and echinostomes) are highly virulent pathogens known to infect amphibians, yet the extent to which they co-occur within amphibian communities remains poorly understood. Using field surveillance of 85 wetlands in the East Bay region of California, USA, we found that 68% of wetlands had ≥2 pathogens and 36% had ≥3 pathogens. Wetlands with high pathogen species richness also tended to cluster spatially. Our results underscore the need for greater integration of multiple pathogens and their interactions into amphibian disease research and conservation efforts.

publication date

  • September 1, 2012

Full Author List

  • Hoverman JT; Mihaljevic JR; Richgels KLD; Kerby JL; Johnson PTJ

Other Profiles

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 288

end page

  • 292


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