Metal oxide semiconductor nanomembrane-based soft unnoticeable multifunctional electronics for wearable human-machine interfaces.
Wearable human-machine interfaces (HMIs) are an important class of devices that enable human and machine interaction and teaming. Recent advances in electronics, materials, and mechanical designs have offered avenues toward wearable HMI devices. However, existing wearable HMI devices are uncomfortable to use and restrict the human body's motion, show slow response times, or are challenging to realize with multiple functions. Here, we report sol-gel-on-polymer-processed indium zinc oxide semiconductor nanomembrane-based ultrathin stretchable electronics with advantages of multifunctionality, simple manufacturing, imperceptible wearing, and robust interfacing. Multifunctional wearable HMI devices range from resistive random-access memory for data storage to field-effect transistors for interfacing and switching circuits, to various sensors for health and body motion sensing, and to microheaters for temperature delivery. The HMI devices can be not only seamlessly worn by humans but also implemented as prosthetic skin for robotics, which offer intelligent feedback, resulting in a closed-loop HMI system.