The primary research expertise lies within studying the different assessment techniques and in-class tools and activities and how this can enhance and improve student learning in the sciences. In the past several years studies have been done in collaboration with other faculty in the Integrative Physiology department with regard to student retention and the process of learning difficult science topics. These studies looked at the effectiveness of various in-class tools like worksheet activities, iClicker questions, and discussion questions. Learning gains were measured using pre/post testing and analyzed using appropriate statistical analysis. Currently, work on this topic continues but has been expanded to include the introduction of case-studies across several of our courses.