Role of norepinephrine in hepatic gluconeogenesis: evidence of aging and training effects.
This study examined the relationship among the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE), hepatic gluconeogenesis, and glyconeogenesis in 63 (30 trained and 33 untrained) young (7 mo), middle-aged (15 mo), and old (25 mo) male Fischer 344 rats. Animals were trained 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 10 wk at treadmill speeds of 75% of age-specific maximal capacity. Liver sections, removed at rest, were sliced and incubated in [14C]lactic acid and 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, or 6.0 ng/ml NE. The rate of [14C]lactate incorporation into glucose was significantly greater in young compared with old animals in both training groups and at all NE concentrations. All trained animals had greater rates of glucose production from lactate than their untrained counterparts at 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 ng/ml NE. At each NE concentration, the old rats showed the lowest rates of glycogen synthesis from lactate. The untrained rats in all age groups were the least responsive to increases in NE concentration. Total hepatic glycogen synthase activity exhibited age-related declines as the young and middle-aged had significantly greater total activity compared with the old animals: 620.4 +/- 27.5, 590.0 +/- 37.9, and 436.3 +/- 44.5 disintegrations/min, respectively. No differences with training were found in total activity. The percent of glycogen synthase in the active form was significantly greater in young compared with old in both the trained (48.6 +/- 2.0 vs. 40.0 +/- 1.3% active) and untrained animals (44.7 +/- 2.2 vs. 35.4 +/- 1.5% active).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)