• Contact Info
Publications in VIVO

Shepard, Lorrie A

Professor Emerita/Emeritus


Research Areas research areas


research overview

  • My early work focused on technical aspects of test development such as standard setting, item bias detection, and validity theory. A cardinal principle of validity research, however, is that test validity depends on how a test is used. As a result, I began to consider contexts of test use. For example, should a readiness test—made up of old IQ test items—be used to keep children out of kindergarten? My most recent work focuses on classroom assessment, especially formative assessment. Drawing on cognitive research and sociocultural theory, I examine ways that assessment can be used as an integral part of instructional activities to help students learn.


  • formative assessment, classroom assessment, high-stakes testing, large-scale assessment, curriculum-embedded assessment


selected publications


courses taught

  • EDUC 5706 - Assessment in Mathematics and Science Education
    Primary Instructor - Spring 2018
    Examines purposes and practices of assessment in mathematics and science education. Particular attention is given to application of theoretical foundations and contemporary research in the design and use of assessment techniques and tools to support teaching for student understanding. Addresses the role of effective formative assessment in teaching and learning. Same as EDUC 4706.
  • EDUC 7416 - Seminar: Research Methodology
    Primary Instructor - Fall 2018
    Presents selected topics for advanced study in educational research, statistics, measurement, and evaluation.
  • EDUC 8740 - Advances in the Assessment of Student Learning
    Primary Instructor - Fall 2021
    Focuses on theories underlying traditional and contemporary proposals for assessment of student learning, and design and research of large-scale and classroom-based methods to assess student learning. Explores intersections between large-scale and classroom assessment, although greater attention is given to issues related to classroom assessment.


awards and honors

Other Profiles